The last fifteen years have seen a flurry of exciting developments in Fourier restriction theory, leading to significant new applications in diverse fields. This timely text brings the reader from the classical results to state-of-the-art advances in multilinear restriction theory, the Bourgain-Guth induction on scales and the polynomial method. Also discussed in the second part are decoupling for curved manifolds and a wide variety of applications in geometric analysis, PDEs (Strichartz estimates on tori, local smoothing for the wave equation) and number theory (exponential sum estimates and the proof of the Main Conjecture for Vinogradov's Mean Value Theorem). More than 100 exercises in the text help reinforce these important but often difficult ideas, making it suitable for graduate students as well as specialists. Written by an author at the forefront of the modern theory, this book will be of interest to everybody working in harmonic analysis.